Guidelines on how to write a good Motivation letter for a Graduate School or A job.

Image Credits: Internet Resources

Image Credits: Internet Resources

 

 

A letter of motivation is required when you apply for a study scholarship or a grant for a language or specialist course. This letter gives you the chance to describe your personality and the reasons why you are applying for the  scholarship.

The following information and questions will help you to write an informative letter of motivation.

Content

  • Facts about your education, skills and knowledge
    • Studies: study programme, number of semesters, if applicable, degree
    • Professional experience, if applicable
    • Academic knowledge, skills and language skills
    • Prizes and awards (if applicable)
  • Academic motivation
    • Why do you wish to take the study programme or attend the language or specialist course for which you are applying?
    • What appeals to you about the university you have chosen?
    • What are your expectations of studying in (Specified country) or attending the course (personal, professional, for your career)?
  • Reasons for applying for a scholarship
    • Why are you applying for a (Particular) scholarship?
    • What do you expect of this scholarship?
    • How will the scholarship help you achieve your academic, professional and personal goals?
  • Personal interests
    Here you can outline special extracurricular achievements and commitments or personal qualities that say something about your character.

Formal information

The letter of motivation should be between one and three DIN A4 pages long.

How should I introduce my research project? – Or: How do I write a research exposé?

In a research exposé, you define the goals of your research work, reflect upon the theoretical and methodical procedure and you describe the individual steps.

The objective

  • What is the content of your research project?
  • Which steps are planned?
  • How do you plan your work schedule?

The structure
The description (approx. 3 – 10 pages) should provide information about the following:

  1. The research field in general and the current state of research literature:
    • What is the current level of research?
    • Which theories/work of other scientists do you refer to?
    • Discussion of the theoretical framework or model
    • What is your research question?
  2. Key research questions (hypotheses), research objectives and the scientific relevance of your project:
    • What do you intend finding out?
    • What goals are you pursuing with your project?
  3. Research strategies/methods:
    • How do you intend answering the research questions?
    • How do you want to collect data (document analyses, quantitative or qualitative survey, experiment, etc.)?
    • Which scientific literature will you use?
    • How will you evaluate results?
    • What is your schedule?
    • What preparation have you already done or intend doing before funding begins?
  4. Ethical issues/anticipated difficulties collecting data
  5. Provisional schedule (in tabular form)
    • How much time do you need for the individual research phases (before, during and, if applicable, after the scholarship period)?
  6. Research bibliography
    • List of books and essays upon which your work is based.

Not all of these points may apply to your project..

Original Article adopted From DAAD WEBSITE

Advertisements

11 Skills You Need To Master To Land A $100,000 Engineering Job At Google

 

 

Credits : Google

Credits : Google

 

 

 

Original Article posted by  and adopted from   BusinessInsider

 

 

 

Google is the most desirable employer on Earth.

Engineers are the rock stars there — and they’re paid accordingly.

Interns start at $70,000 to $90,000 salaries, while software engineers pull in $118,000 and senior software engineers make an average of $152,985.

But one does not simply walk into the Googleplex.

The company receives upwards of 2.5 million job applications a year, but only hires about 4,000 people.

Thankfully for would-be Googlers, the Google in Education team has released a list of skills that they want to see in potential engineers.

“Having a solid foundation in Computer Science is important in being a successful Software Engineer,” the company says. “This guide is a suggested path for University students to develop their technical skills academically and non-academically through self-paced, hands-on learning.”

Here are the skills Google wants its tech talent to master, complete with online resources to get you started:

1. Mastering the foundation. You have to be able to get through an introduction to CS course, like the ones from Udacity or Coursera 

2. Learn to code in at least one object-oriented programming language. Like C++, Java, or Python. Consult MIT or Udacity.

3. Learn other programming languages. Add Java Script, CSS, Ruby, and HTML to your skillset. W3school and CodeAcademy are there to help.

4. Test your code. Because Google wants you to be able to “catch bugs, create tests, and break your software.” Udacity, once again.

5. Have some background in abstract math. Like logical reasoning and discrete math, which lots of computer science draws on. MIT can help you with mathematics for computer science.

6. Understand algorithms and data structures. Google wants you to learn about fundamental data types like stacks, queues, and bags, as well as grasp sorting algorithms like quicksort, mergesort, and heapsort. MIT provides the recommended online resources, and the book “The Algorithm Design Manual” is super helpful, too.

7. Get to know operating systems. Because they’ll be where you do much of your work. The University of California, Berkeley, provides a primer.

8. Become familiar with artificial intelligence. Google loves robots. Stanford has the knowledge.

9. Learn how to build compilers. Stanford says that when you do that, “you will learn how a program written in a high-level language designed for humans is systematically translated into a program written in low-level assembly more suited to machines.” Head to Coursera for the learning.

10. Learn cryptography. Because cybersecurity is crucial. Coursera and Udacity provide courses.

11. Learn parallel programming. Because being able to carry out tons of computations at the same time is super powerful. The University of Illinois can help you out.

But Google doesn’t just look at skills in its select candidates — the search giant seeks specific personality qualities, too.

Working at the United Nations: Insider Application Tips

Original Blog Posted By the U.S Department of State check out more opportunities and advice there too

 

Credits : United Nations

Credits : United Nations

Interested in working with the UN or other international organizations (IOs), but wondering how to strengthen your application?  Competition is stiff with applicants from across the globe competing for some very attractive positions.  So what can you do to get your application into the hands of a hiring manager and ace that interview?  Just last month we had the opportunity to meet with HR officials from several UN agencies who shared their insight into the hiring process along with the following application tips.

Target your applications to jobs you really want.

Applying to UN positions can be time consuming so be selective and dedicate more time and effort applying to the jobs you really qualify for.  These organizations typically receive hundreds of applications for each vacancy and do an initial screen out of applicants who do not meet the basic qualifications including language, education, and years of experience.  Apply to positions you’re truly interested in and thoroughly complete your online application profile.  You may not have the opportunity to provide a separate resume or other supporting documents so take full advantage of the space provided to give the most comprehensive picture of your skills and experiences.  Don’t sell yourself short.

Emphasize teamwork in addition to individual achievements.

While it’s important to highlight individual on-the job successes, remember to balance your applications, and interviews for that matter, with concrete examples of teamwork and collaboration.  The organizational culture of the UN is more we than I and you’ll be a stronger applicant if you can demonstrate success while working in a team.

Focus on concrete skills and experiences versus aspirations.

While working at the UN may be your dream job and a means to further universal principles, spend less time expounding on aspirations and visions, and more time on concrete examples of how you can complete the day-to-day requirements of the position.

Language, language, language!

There are six official UN languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish), and the most competitive applicants speak more than one language proficiently.  Start brushing up on those language skills and, when completing your online application profile, be sure not to underestimate your abilities.  Hiring managers don’t expect every applicant to be proficient in several languages, but a demonstrated interest in and commitment to learning languages is an advantage.

Get out into the field.

Every single HR official we spoke with emphasized gaining field experience.  IOs want employees who have lived and worked in a foreign environment and possess the cross-cultural skills to succeed in a multi-cultural setting.  Be sure to include all overseas experience on your application, including study abroad programs.  Additionally, consider applying to positions in field locations rather than at Headquarters — there’s often less competition for these jobs and you’ll gain the field experience needed to be a more competitive applicant in the future.

Consider short-term contracts, consultancies, and internships.

Applying as an external applicant, with no hands-on experience with the UN, can be a disadvantage.  Get your foot in the door by considering short-term and consultant opportunities.  Hiring processes for such positions tend to be less cumbersome and time consuming, and the on-the-ground experience may give you just the exposure you need to gain familiarity with the culture and structure of the organization, build your network, and get your name and expertise known.  Additionally, current and recent students may want to consider internship opportunities.

For more information about working at the UN and other IOs, check out International Organization Careers, and follow @State_IO on twitter for more job tips and postings about vacancy announcements.

– See more at: http://blogs.state.gov/stories/2014/10/30/working-united-nations-insider-application-tips#sthash.kpqodfyp.dpuf

10 Ways Universities Can Improve Entrepreneurship Education

The ARTICLE WAS ORIGINALLY POSTED BY  FORBES

 

Nowadays, global business changes at such a stunning pace, entry-level professionals barely have time to acclimate themselves to a new company, a new competitive environment, or new operational requirements. The challenges faced by young workers include lack of experience, a complex corporate world, and business education that is too theoretical and out of sync with companies’ day-to-day needs.

But business school doesn’t have to be a part of the problem; higher-learning institutions can make their degrees more engaging and hands-on by blending the traditional economic and business dogmas with real-world, practical experiences and operational challenges, which will help to better prepare students for the working world.

I reached out to experts from across the country for their advice on this matter and came up with 10 recommendations for how to improve entrepreneurship education, from successful social entrepreneurs, endowed professors, researchers, business owners, startup founders, and researchers. Here are the easy-to-implement ways universities can put their degrees on the competitive map and empower students effectively, readying them for productive careers.

1. Focus More on Case Studies

Case studies are an effective method to spur students’ curiosity, putting them face-to-face with real-life business situations. By studying past or present corporate success stories and operational hiccups, students can dig deeper into processes and procedures that executives follow to make decisions.

And this is what a business degree should teach—the thinking pattern a manager formulates to analyze a situation, evaluate alternatives, choose a solution, and track progress over time.

Business case studies are now part of curricula at the graduate level, but it would be beneficial for both students and universities to also make it an essential component of undergraduate programs.

2. Link Curricula to Real-World Business Challenges

Universities can jumpstart their business degrees by linking their curricula to real-life business challenges. For example, when teaching social media marketing, a lecturer can point to how companies like Facebook and Twitter have become the promotional fulcrum for many businesses around the world. Similarly, a finance professor can use the 2008 mortgage crisis to instill in students notions as diverse as quantitative easing, inflation and monetary policy.

3. Create Opportunities for Students to Participate in Social Entrepreneurship Contests

There is nothing more engaging and hands-on than letting students participate in some type of entrepreneurship contests. This includes both social entrepreneurship businesses that may focus more on a social cause and tech startup ventures. No wonder shows like The Apprentice and Shark Tank have drawn viewers and critical acclaim from all over the world.

Ideally, an entrepreneurship contest can pit two or several student groups against each other—if the contest is sponsored by a single university. Alternatively, a group of institutions can get together and sponsor such contests.

4. Partner with Businesses

Prominent universities already have partnership agreements with businesses, whereby they regularly send students to work temporarily as interns at specific organizations. Entrepreneurship-in-Residence is also an innovative way to foster practical knowledge and allow young professionals to rub elbows with established and experienced entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship-in-Residence programs facilitate pairing of successful entrepreneurs and startup founders—who serve as mentors and give lectures—with campuses to offer students a real-world perspective of business and entrepreneurship. As Michael Simmons, co-founder and partner of Empact, put it: “Colleges and universities can now contribute the most by serving as the glue that connects students to the rest of the ecosystem.”

Again, this kind of partnership exists already in executive MBA programs at prominent universities, but the idea is to expand it to other, if not all, higher-learning institutions and also include social entrepreneurs as part of these programs.

5. Invite Business Executives to Deliver Lectures

Some institutions, like the Kellogg School of Management, have found new ways to make entrepreneurship teaching more engaging, vibrant, and effective. They occasionally invite business executives and ask them to teach a full course, make a presentation, or share their experiences with students.

Such initiatives have produced excellent results so far, because students can quickly learn and grasp real-world insight that tomes and tomes of business literature might not deliver so pointedly.

6. Provide Consulting Services to Small Businesses and Nonprofits

Universities can make money—and make business courses engaging—by providing consulting services to small businesses and nonprofit agencies. Conceptually, a professor would lead the consulting team of students, formulating operational priorities and guiding students throughout the consulting engagement.

This scenario is a win-win for all parties involved. Students learn practical stuff and how to cope with business tedium and nonprofit leaders; universities and faculty members make extra cash; and small businesses and nonprofits pay affordable rates for high-quality consulting services.

7. Help Students Launch Their Own Businesses

In a global economy plagued by high levels of unemployment, nothing would be better than helping students launch their own businesses. Universities can work in partnership with student-entrepreneurs—and institutions such as the Small Business Administration—to conduct market research, obtain financing, and create viable businesses.

The student-entrepreneur learns in the process, and his or her classmates also expand their practical knowledge.

8. Emphasize Technology Topics in Curricula

Technology has asserted its supremacy on today’s global economy. Higher-learning institutions can jumpstart their students’ careers by incorporating more technology topics in curricula.

The idea is not to clog academic programs with coding, programming and computer-hardware courses, but to teach strategic ways companies and entrepreneurs are using technology to innovate, communicate, advertise, and make money.

9. Foster Global Exchange Programs with Other Institutions

Global exchange programs are nothing new, but the concept has not expanded as it should to business programs. For example, the Erasmus program in Europe allows students of Eurozone countries to start a degree program in one country and finish it in another. Similar programs, such as the one spearheaded by the New York Institute of Technology, also exist in the United States and elsewhere.

The concept here is to broaden the exchange program to other institutions, inviting students with varied cultural and professional backgrounds.

10. Encourage Student-in-Residence Programs

Student-in-residence programs are comparable to internships, except that students get hands-on experience, work a specific number of hours at the host company—say, 20 hours a week—and complete coursework that ultimately is graded and counts towards the course’s final GPA.

Similar to entrepreneur-in-residence programs, student-in-residence programs allow students and experienced professionals to learn from each other while discussing and solving real-world business challenges.

To encourage entrepreneurship in students, whether it be social or for-profit, universities must offer more practical coursework, blending the theory in the traditional economic literature with the tangible needs of everyday business management. The education should be experiential, hands-on, and action-driven to give students a real-world experience. Let’s give entrepreneurship students the sink-or-swim test in the Shark Tank.

Dr. Emad Rahim is an entrepreneur-in-residence at Oklahoma State University and a visiting scholar at Rutgers University.

The Correct Answers to ‘How Will You Use My Money?

Original  article By  Examiner.com

Entrepreneurs looking for investor funding often fail to realize that all money comes with strings. For example, if you have watched the Shark Tank TV series, you probably noticed that the Sharks always ask the entrepreneurs for their intended “use of funds.” Those who respond with one of the wrong answers, such as “I want to pay myself a salary,” usually go home empty-handed.

You may think this question is just an artifact of good television, but let me assure you that in my experience as an angel investor, it’s a standard “make or break” inquiry posed to every entrepreneur. Here are some guidelines that will help you with the right answers, not only in closing your next investment, but in planning when and how much money to ask for:

  1. Investors are most interested in helping you scale the business. That means they normally only invest in startups with a working product that has already been sold to at least one customer for full price (beta tests, giveaways and best friends don’t count). They are willing to cover marketing, inventory and scaling, but not product development.
  2. Make your focus and priorities clear. A long list of everyday expenses is not helpful here. I recommend that you simplify your use to no more than three items or categories, with a percent allocation to each. An example might be 50 percent for marketing, 30 percent for inventory and 20 percent for staffing. Have backup charts for investors wanting more detail.
  3. Funding for founder salaries at this stage is a red flag. Investors expect you to “bet on the future” with them. You may pay salaries to your team, but your salary should come from earnings, when they occur. Taking your cut before earnings exist implies that you are not willing to take the same risk of no return, as you are asking of investors.
  4. Make sure allocation amounts are reasonable. These days, even viral marketing requires real money, for events and promotions. Startups whose marketing budget is trivial lose credibility and most likely the investment. Conversely, a huge marketing budget implies an intent to “spray and pray,” in hopes that something works.
  5. Use of funds must be tied to projected cash flow negatives. If you ask for a million dollars, your financial projections better show a negative cash flow approximating that number (with a 20 percent buffer). Investors are not interested in giving you money to keep in the bank for backup, for investing in real estate or a fancy new car.
  6. Tie use of funds to real traction milestones. A valid milestone might be closing a specific big-name customer or channel, such as Walmart, or it might mean getting your first 100,000 social-media followers, by a given target date. Building a huge inventory before you have a confirmed customer is not a convincing strategy.

If you are really looking for research and development money, and you didn’t sell your last startup for $800 million, professional investors are not the place to start. Hopefully, you can find some friends or a rich uncle who believe in your potential. The other alternative is to find a strategic partner who knows the space well and will benefit from your solution.

Professional investors always look for a proven business model and an existing revenue stream to minimize the risk. Then they look at the people behind the model, the execution status and how they might get their money back. Your proposed use of their funds will be seen in these three contexts. They will look to your business plan for cash flows and specific return on investment projections.

In all cases, your goal must be to explain how the investment will help you scale up the business and become more profitable sooner. You should always be prepared to mention a plan B, if possible, to grow more slowly by reinvesting initial earnings over time. Confessing that you are in survival mode, desperate for money now, will not improve your odds with investors.

Whether it be in the context of a five-minute elevator pitch or a more formal presentation to professional investors, the projected use of funds should be summarized and prioritized into three “chunks.” These must remain focused on scaling the business.

Investors want to be convinced that your use of their money will maximize their returns in the first five years, as well as yours. After that, all you have to do is make it happen. Have fun!

15 Questions To Ask Yourself Every Friday

Original Article by  Social Media Week

Some weeks at work, you’re totally on your A-game. You’re crushing every important call, you’re cranking through your to-dos like nobody’s business, and you’re getting high-fives and ’atta boys (or girls) left and right.

And then there are those other weeks—when even being on your B-game would be nice.

Athletes, like professionals, have on streaks and off streaks, too. But unlike professionals, they often take the time to look back over their performance, analyzing in great detail what went well, what didn’t, and what contributed to their “game” either way.

Business coach Laura Garnett sees this as a lost opportunity. she suggests that we could all use a bit of this athletic-style evaluation in our working lives—and proposes a series of 15 questions to ask yourself each week to reveal your peaks and dips in performance, energy, and excitement. “By going through these questions and answering them honestly, you will uncover the root cause of great or less-than-optimal performance,” she says, “and [can] make changes to enhance or avoid it going forward.”

No matter what kind of week you had today, try spending 15 minutes answering these questions and seeing what you can uncover about your work life:

  1. What was the most enjoyable work activity of the week?
  2. How many enjoyable work moments did you have?
  3. How many frustrating or boring moments did you have?
  4. How would you describe your impact on others you work with, your customers, or those whom you come into contact with this week?
  5. Is this the type of impact you want?
  6. If not, what prompted this change in desired impact?
  7. Were you challenged this week?
  8. Were you bored?
  9. What were your biggest and most exciting challenges this past week?
  10. How confident did you feel this week?
  11. Did you have any negative mental chatter about yourself?
  12. Are you practicing actively believing that you can achieve whatever it is you have set your sights on?
  13. Are you committed to having joy and groundbreaking results at work?
  14. What distractions came up this week that prevented you from getting the most out of your job?
  15. How can you avoid that going forward?

Garnett advises going through this exercise at the end of each week, writing your responses down in an ongoing document you can reflect back on from time to time. But even if you did the exercise once a month? We bet it would have a serious impact.

 

30 Career Tips Every Young Woman Should Know

image Credits :Internet

image Credits :Internet

 

Originally posted by Huffington

Here is some advice I have received and lessons I’ve learned along the way.

  1. Be willing to take criticism because it’s crucial to the learning process.
  2. Study your superiors. At work, I am surrounded by brilliant female leaders. Learning from their example is incredibly valuable.
  3. Find internships. Go to workshops. Obtain all possible experience.
  4. Be creative and innovative in the workplace. You are young and offer a fresh outlook into your field. Contribute your ideas and think outside of the box.
  5. Understand that you’re never beneath any kind of work, and you’d be surprised what you can learn from seemingly meaningless tasks.
  6. Never feel you have to dress less feminine to be respected by others. Your appearance should be irrelevant in professional circumstances. It is your personal choice. Leaders can wear pink. Just be modest and professional and the rest is up to you.
  7. On that same note, never feel that your appearance in general matters more because of your gender. It should be unrelated to the confidence you have in career situations.
  8. Don’t be ashamed or afraid to ask for help.
  9. Write thank-you letters and send thank-you emails. Be clearly and verbally appreciative at all times.
  10. Try to save money in all of the little ways that you can. Pack lunches, get REWARDS cards for gas points and shop at Tj Maxx for your blazers instead of the mall. You want to be able to make money from your job, not spend more on it than needed.
  11. Be friendly with everyone at work and in your classes. I mean everyone. I am friends with the janitors, and they’re awesome.
  12. Not only does being kind to your co-workers create a more positive environment for you to work in, but it is tremendously essential that you can work well with others if you want to be successful.
  13. Understand your place and try to be ambitious while still refraining from creating any conflicts or undermining anyone’s authority.
  14. Be flexible. Your role will change often. New experience is new knowledge and ultimately leads to being more well-rounded in your field.
  15. Never underestimate the power of your education. If you have the opportunity and the means to further it, you should do so.
  16. That being said, you don’t always have to pay an absurd amount of money for that education. You are often in control of what you get out of an education based upon how much you are willing to put in. There are plenty of options and there’s nothing wrong with being sensible about funding your schooling.
  17. Try to keep personal relationships out of the workplace. They can be messy and you don’t want it to interfere with the success of your work. Also, seeing someone every day after a fall out can be incredibly uncomfortable for both parties.
  18. Keep up with current news in your field. Read articles and blogs. Keep your knowledge fresh.
  19. Be respectful. You don’t have to like everyone you work with, but you do have to show them respect.
  20. Always have a back-up plan for the possibility of one job opportunity not working out.
  21. Have a back-up plan for your back-up plan.
  22. Basically, just make plans. Be prepared for numerous possibilities.
  23. Don’t ever feel professionally inferior because you’re a woman. Yes, women are still the minority among leaders and in management positions, but that’s an opportunity, not a setback.
  24. Sometimes you will feel like you have to work a little harder to make an impression than a man would, that’s OK. Don’t use that as a crutch, use it as a motivator to be better.
  25. You’re inevitably going to change your mind about exactly what you want to do. Understand that there is nothing wrong with that and just be responsible with your career changes.
  26. Be on good terms with your past employers and keep in touch. No door is ever really closed unless you allow it to be.
  27. Put emphasis on the importance of small gestures. Make eye contact and shake hands.
  28. Never be afraid to express your ideas to superiors. You win some and you lose some, but you win nothing if you keep your thoughts to yourself and confine your creative abilities.
  29. Be patient. It’s easy to get frustrated when you aren’t reaching the place in your career that you had hoped. The fact is that all good things come with time, and maintaining a positive attitude is vital.
  30. Keep your head up, your coffee strong and your dreams in view, and you will achieve anything that you set your mind to.